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Ethanol is becoming a very clear option for the alternative fuel market, as more and more countries start using and studying the ways to make ethanol use more popular, this is one kind of revolution that will change the fuel industry forever.To have a better understanding of what ethanol distillation is, lets get into the basics of ethanol.Ethanol fast FactsSystematic Name: EthanolOther Names: Ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, hydroxyethane, EtOHMolecular Form...

Ethanol Distillation And Ethanol Uses

Ethanol Distillation And Ethanol UsesEthanol is becoming a very clear option for the alternative fuel market, as more and more countries start using and studying the ways to make ethanol use more popular, this is one kind of revolution that will change the fuel industry forever.To have a better understanding of what ethanol distillation is, lets get into the basics of ethanol.Ethanol fast FactsSystematic Name: EthanolOther Names: Ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, hydroxyethane, EtOHMolecular Formula: E2H6OPhysically, ethanol may be described as a colorless, flammable, slightly toxic chemical compound that has a distinctive perfume-like smell.It is produced from sugar cane and used as automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol made out of corn, on the other hand, is being used widely as a gasoline additive and direct fuel in the United States. Straw, meanwhile, is being used to manufacture ethanol as well.Ethanol is currently the leading biofuel provider in Europe.Ethanol DistillationMost of us already have an idea on how distillation happens. Lets have the production of distilled water as an example. When water is subjected to heat, it is expected that steam would conduct away from a tube. A tube looped and oriented downward and allowed to cool would yield condensed vapor and eventually, water.For ethanol, simple distillation will not be enough. Fractional distillation would be the best choice. The latter is used for separating mixtures of liquids with varying boiling points - like water and alcohol.To start the distillation of ethanol, consider the following steps:1.Prepare a small beaker and/or a simple glass half-filled with the rather miscible mixture of water and alcohol.2.Cover the beaker or the simple glass jug with a funnel or something similar, so that a balloon can be placed to suck air out of the beaker.3.After some time, the alcohol vapor and the steam in the mixture just above the liquid in the beaker or glass will reach a state of equilibrium. This should be relative of temperature and even pressure of the environment.4.With regard to equilibrium, change can no longer be observed in the vapor to liquid ratio in the water to alcohol ratio within either the vapor or liquid mixture.5.However, because of alcohols higher volatility, the ratio of water to alcohol in the vapor state is greater than that of the ratio in liquid state.6.The occurrence of liquid-against-vapor-states permits the distillation from an escalating concentration of alcohol from the water and alcohol mixture.And finally, by having sequences of repeated evaporation as well as condensation, a higher alcohol concentration is achieved from the re-condensation of recent vapor state.This is since the alcohol inside the vapor mixture is at a greater concentration than it was from the liquid mixture from which it was changed into a vapor state.

Building An RC Drag Car Racing Track

Building An RC Drag Car Racing Track

RC drag car racing can turn a fun hobby into a profitable business and its not as difficult as you might imagine. Of course, building a quality RC drag "car racing" track does require some cash in the bank.Finding a smooth, level area is the first consideration in building an RC drag car racing track. The finest surface for RC drag car racing is ultra-smooth asphalt; the kind found in playgrounds and skateboard parks. Besides finding a level surface, it will also have to meet certain area requirements. Including a shutdown area, 200 feet is ideal; 150 feet should be considered a bare minimum. Youll also need a width of at least ten feet for each lane.The ideal RC drag car racing track requires extra traction. Although many tracks get by using a blend of sugar and water, for the best conditions possible you should use a special traction compound known as VHT. The problem is that VHT doesnt come cheap; if you find a gallon for less than $10, pick it up. Of course, you can always invest in a drum of VHT for somewhere in the $750 range. Even so, a drum may only last you around ten races. Because VHT is so pricy, most people cut it with alcohol to make it last longer. Typically, VHT is applied only to first 60 feet of the track.Of course, RC drag car racing wouldnt be drag racing without a timer. Various types of timer units can found in most hobby stores, or you check out eBay for an older system. A new timing tree will probably set you back anywhere from two to three grand; unless its in mint condition, you really shouldnt pay more than $1500 for a used one, and shop around if the price is even that high. If youre patient, you might even be able to get a used RC drag car racing timing tree for under $1000.Although certainly not a requirement, you might want to invest protection for runaway cars. The excitement of RC drag car racing stems from the thrill of breakaway speed and often results in out of control cars. You can buy and decorate boards for anywhere from $250 to $500, depending on how realistic you want them. In addition to protecting runaway vehicles, the boards also serve to mark boundaries; they add realism to the look and feel of the track that you cant get from using pylons.These are the primary expenses associated with building an RC drag car racing track. Once you get it up and going, however, you may want to look into the cost of trophies, a lighting system for night racing, and even cash awards. Of course, those kinds of expenses should only be considered after youve started bringing in money by charging entry fees for your races.

The Ford Edsel : An Auto Industry Disaster In Car Design And Automobile Marketing

The Ford Edsel : An  Auto Industry Disaster In Car  Design And Automobile Marketing

. To call a car or any product an Edsel is to provide the worst of insults. The Edsel was a car designed and manufactured by the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn in the late 1950s. 157, 1958, 1959 to be exact. The debacle of the Edsel was both one of the most spectacular and worst failures to befall the vibrant American automobile industry of that day. To call a car or any product an Edsel is to provide the worst of insults.Some authorities will state that the reason for the Edsels failure was just poor market timing, not a poor product. Timing can be said to be most everything vital for the success of failure of any product. In those days, before computerization allowed for rapid sharing an interchanges of design and the car design process everything was done on paper. It took great amount of physical logistics and delays for the paperwork and blueprints to be sent and coordinated among the various players in the automobile design process. On top of that it seemed that everyone seemed to despise and those further down the line. The designers disliked their bosses and the engineers. The engineers hated the parts people etc etc etc. On top of that the name Ford was on the door signifying the ultimate authority in the car designs and marketing process. The Edsel project was initiated during a time of big cars from G.M. the market leader , yet introduced many years later when the concept of a second car , a compact car, for the wife to drive the family and kids around was beginning to be established in the automobile marketplaceOther authorities will state that the reason for the poor market showing and demise of the Edsel was that it was just a poor product poorly designed and poorly built. To further corroborate this viewpoint it is now known that the actual workers building the Edsels were none too happy building this model. The Edsel was not built on its dedicated Ford Division production line but rather the Edsel was built (or shared space) on Ford Mercury Division production line. These Mercury Division employees considered themselves as the luxury end of the Ford Car company entities and indeed saw themselves as a cut above the run of the mill Ford employee and workers.They both resented the intrusion into their turf as they say it and as well felt that a Ford product was muscling into their terrain that of more prestige vehicles. In the end the marketing and sales failures of the Ford Edsel can be said to be a combination of both factors.Interestingly enough the unspoken order from the Ford family was that the new product the 1958 Edsel was to be named anything but Edsel. The late Edsel Ford was the founder Henry Fords only son and the grandfather of the then current patriarchs commanding and directing the Ford Empire. The senior Ford even stated that he did not want to see his late grandfathers name spinning around on hubcaps. The design development process had worked with the E or Experimental Car. Since it was such a major and revolutionary product of Ford many assumed that the designation E car had of course stood for Edsel. How better to honor such a major figure in the Ford family and empire. Imagine if the name had not stuck. Would it of made a difference in the ultimate success or failure of the sales and marketing of this automobile product.

Car Audio: Music On The Move

Car Audio: Music On The Move

Picture this: a sunny day. You are at the wheel of your favorite car. The road stretches out enticingly before you. You have time and freedom to drive wherever you want. There is no particular time that you need to be home. The window is open, sending in the cool air as the car pushes forward. Could this be more perfect? Is there anything missing? In a word, yes. And that thing is music!Driving is a joy, especially when you have all the time in the world, and you are out in the country, with miles to cover. But theres nothing like listening to music on the go. It adds feeling to the driving like nothing else.The thing you need, though, to listen to music, is a great music system. This sounds simple, but the one thing that many people do when they purchase their system is make a cardinal mistake. And that mistake is to pay to little for their sound system.A cheap system can do the job in some ways. After all, music is music, right? But the thing that you get with a cheap system is a cheap sound quality which will forever be fighting with the sounds of the car. Not good. This can become annoying very quicly, since passages of music will be drowned out by the sounds of the car as the frequencies interfere with each other.However, with a more expensive system, the rules change. Its mainly to do with the quality of the speakers. A good pair of speakers will not on;ly generally have more power, but will also give a much better range of sounds, or tones. This means that the music will be much more enjoyable, a greater listening pleasure.And thats exactly what is needed when the road is clear, the sun is shining and the window is open to the cool fresh air. So when choosing your sound system, dont immediately go for the cheapest option. Check out some of the more expensive models. You wont regret it.

We Owe A Debt Of Gratitude To Early Luxury Automotive Products

You may well have noticed gorgeous, massive cars in classic movies. What happened to these car makers? Were they innovators or just producers of boats or other monstrosities of little innovative value? Sort of like big tank S.U.V. trucks in these days of $ 3 a gallon gasoline. Indeed you may have spotted such cars as the Italian made Isotta Fraschine in classic movies such as the movie Sunset Boulevard which starred Gloria Swanson. These cars were not only the highest end luxury models of their days but they introduced early on many advanced features into cars as well as moving ahead and reinforcing standards of reliability and durability of motor vehicles. The thin edge of the wedge even then. Back in 1929 when the Tippo 8A primo motor car was delivered to its first waiting owners , the automotive name and models if Isoto Fraschini were held in the same breath , prestige and level as those of Rolls-Royce and Hispano-Suiza. The story starts in Milan, Italy thirty years earlier when Cesare Isotta and Vincenzio Fraschino joined forces and went into the newfangled car business.At that time Italy was a poor country, they soon realized that with their limited car market, and luxury car market the need, indeed the necessity to export their products. The enterprising partners first shipped a car to the United Sates in 1902 and established the Isotta Import Company in New York just five years later. In 1908, Isotta won Sicilys super tough Targea Florio race and notched up more than several important auto races in America. Two years later, the Italians launched the mighty KM model, which sported 10.6 liter, four cylinder, and sixteen valve engine. It would storm along at 90 mph at a time when few aircraft could achieve that in flight.After World War I, Isotta Fraschini decided to concentrate on the lucrative and prestigious luxury end of the automotive market. The 5.9 liter Tipo 8 arrived in 1909 powered by the worlds first series production straight eight engine, and was later joined, then replaced by the Tipo 8A. Customers purchased a chassis and ordered whatever body tickled their fancy from a coachbuilder. The well known high end coachbuilder of the time Sala and Castanga accounted for most of them. Others built to the likes of Fleetwood and Barker.One of the lighter and more powerful Super Spinto versions of the *A finished sixth in the first Mille Miglia , driven by none other than Count Maggi , one of the 1000 mile road race founders and originators. He was accompanied by Bindo Maserati. Bindo and his brother Alfieri were then working for Isota Fraschini as testers. Most of the parts for the first Masaerati cars were made at Isottas factory on Via Monterosa in Milan.Launched in April 1931, the Tipo 8B is generally considered as Isotto Fraschinis finest automobile product. It offered more performance than its predecessor. About 950 of these fine motor vehicles were manufactured and sold. The Tipo 8B Automobile product line encountered strong opposition from the likes of Rolls-Royce, Hispano and Bugatti. By the mid nineteen thirties the Isotta Frascnini car production system and enterprise was out of the automobile business. It made a short comeback after the time period approximately of the post Second World War II period when the Tipo 8C Monterosa appeared to a fanfare of postwar trumpets. The Post World War II Tipo 8C Monterosa was a most interesting concept car of its time period a very big car with a V-8 engine its tail. Rather unbelievably, or perhapsWe owe a debit of gratitude to these early luxury automobile innovators and producers in that what we take today for automotive vehicle features , engineering as well as reliability started early on with the expectations of purchasers of these luxury automobile products.

The Truth About Car Maintenance Costs

If you walked into your local car dealer and requested a 30,000-mile maintenance service, is it safe to assume that the dealer will follow manufacturer guidelines when servicing your car? Should the dealer only follow manufacturer guidelines? Can they bend the guidelines?Heres a recent and very common scenario that occurred at a local Toyota dealership.A service customer called the dealer to schedule the manufacturers recommended 30,000-mile service for his 2005 4-Cylinder Camry. However, the dealer added several services NOT included in the guidelines.The additional services included a coolant flush (drain and refill), automatic transmission service (drain and refill), and a power steering fluid change.According to the manufacturer, the coolant does not need to be replaced until 100,000 miles. The automatic transmission fluid can last until 120,000 miles. And there is no specific maintenance interval for the power steering fluid.Now, before we throw the dealer under the bus, which, dont get me wrong, is always a blast to do, is there any legitimacy in recommending these extra services? Are there any circumstances where one may want to consider performing a coolant or transmission service 70,000 to 90,000 miles sooner than recommended by the manufacturer of the car? If we assume that were not driving the vehicle beyond its limits, such as racing, off-road, or a high-speed police chase, the answer is no not in this case.There are times, however, when it is ok to venture outside manufacturer guidelines. The conditions include, but are not limited to: maintenance neglect, abuse, vehicle age, poor manufacturer design, and poor quality of fuel.While each of the exceptions above are fun to explore, we should highlight fuel quality concerns. Poor gas quality often leads to carbon build up, which can be remedied by a professional fuel injection service. Aside from this fuel cleaning service (which no manufacturer recommends during regular maintenance), there is no service outside of the manufacturer guidelines that offers any real or lasting benefit.So how can a dealer recommend services outside of the guidelines set by the manufacturer of the product that they sell and service?The answer is that car dealerships (the majority anyway) are independent of the manufacturer. In other words, theyre not bound to adhere to set guidelines. In fact, many dealers create there own maintenance schedules. This creative practice is increasing as manufacturers continue to extend maintenance services, stripping dealers of there usual high and comfortable profit margins.Interestingly, in terms of service, a manufacturer and a dealer are in opposition of one another. Manufacturers set vehicle maintenance schedules to keep vehicles maintained according to their standards; however, one of those standards is low cost. Low maintenance costs net a positive image to the manufacturer. The service center in a dealership on the other hand, wants cars to be as high cost as possible to maintain.Despite all this, there is another possibility worth exploring in this dealer versus manufacturer scenario. Given that the client called the dealer its likely that he spoke with an untrained and under-qualified customer service representative. The representative may have misled the client, providing outdated maintenance recommendations, as the older Toyotas did in fact require the coolant and transmission services mentioned above.In larger dealerships, telephones are usually answered by Call Centers. This is a group of people who know little about cars, but are generally pleasant on the phone. Call Center representatives are famous for providing misinformation and miss-reading a detailed automotive service menu, such as a 30,000-mile service on a 2005 4-Cylinder Camry. In other words, one of these representatives may have listed services which are NOT actually part of the service. This happens every day! Few noticewho actually remembers anything after: the service includes and oil and filter change, check fluids, belts, hoses, replace the air filter, set tire pressures.blah, blah, blahThe owner of the Camry was quoted $450 which - if the dealer was actually going to perform all that it stated, and the car actually needed it would actually be a good deal.The real and fair price according to manufacturer guidelines for a 30,000-mile service on a 2005 4-Cylinder Toyota Camry is $272.03 @ $100 per hour. To see the break down of the FAIR charges, cut and paste the following URL into your browser:http://www.repairtrust.com/auto_repair_estimate_toyota_camry_4cyl_auto_2005_30k_serv.htmlThe service includes the following:Inspections:Inspect ball joints and dust coversInspect brake hoses/linesInspect brakes, pads/discs/runoutInspect and test traction controlInspect CV joints and bootsInspect coolantInspect automatic transmission fluidInspect differential fluid (A/T trans)Inspect radiator/hosesInspect steering systemInspect exhaustInspect fuel system/lines/hoses/gas cap/induction systemThe only items that actually get or require replacement:Engine oil and filterCabin filterAir filterTransmission fluid (manual transmissions only)Other services:Reset maintenance reminder lightRotate tiresTighten nuts and bolts on chassisThe frequency of manipulating the guidelines with extra services is astounding. And its only one tactic of hundreds. Stretching pre-determined guidelines expands across all makes, models foreign and domestic, and occurs at dealers, local shops and franchises. It occurs because the automotive service industry has zero accountability in any tangible sense.Thus the service customer has no true advocate, information, or resources in which to turn, that can provide sound, fair, and reasonable prices and advice. For this reason alone, rests the foundation of RepairTrust.

Summary

Ethanol is becoming a very clear option for the alternative fuel market, as more and more countries start using and studying the ways to make ethanol use more popular, this is one kind of revolution that will change the fuel industry forever.To have a better understanding of what ethanol distillation is, lets get into the basics of ethanol.Ethanol fast FactsSystematic Name: EthanolOther Names: Ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, hydroxyethane, EtOHMolecular Form...